What Is Threat Modeling? 

Threat modeling is a structured approach used to identify, quantify, and address the security risks associated with an application. It is a vital part of the design process for any system that handles sensitive data.

Practically speaking, threat modeling involves identifying potential threats to the system, determining the risk associated with these threats, and taking appropriate measures to mitigate these risks. The end goal is to reduce or eliminate any potential harm to the system or the data it holds. This process aids in the design of a system that is resilient to attacks and capable of effectively protecting sensitive assets.

Threat modeling is crucial in a world where cyber threats are evolving and becoming increasingly sophisticated. It prepares organizations for potential attacks by helping them understand the risks associated with their system and how to mitigate them effectively.

In this article:

What are the Benefits of Threat Modeling in Cybersecurity? 

Provides a Better View of Security Posture

Threat modeling allows security teams to understand the system from an attacker’s point of view. This perspective facilitates a deeper understanding of the system’s vulnerabilities and helps identify potential attack vectors.

Further, threat modeling allows for a comprehensive assessment of a system’s security posture. It helps identify weak points in the system that could be exploited by attackers. It can also provide a clear picture of the system’s data flow. Understanding this can help identify areas where sensitive data might be at risk. This makes it easier to take necessary precautions to protect this data from potential threats.

Enables Better Collaboration on Security

Threat modeling encourages the involvement of all stakeholders in the security process. This includes the development team, the operations team, and even business stakeholders. Everyone gains a better understanding of the system’s security needs and can contribute to enhancing its security.

This collaborative approach to security helps create a security-focused culture within the organization. Everyone becomes more aware of the importance of security and the role they play in maintaining it. This can lead to more robust security practices and a more secure system overall.

Enables Risk Prioritization

Threat modeling helps identify the most significant threats to the system and prioritize them based on their potential impact. This allows security teams to focus their efforts on the most critical threats, ensuring that they are addressed first.

The process of risk prioritization begins with the identification of potential threats. These threats are then assessed based on their potential impact on the system. The threats with the highest potential impact are given priority. This approach to risk prioritization ensures that resources are used effectively, ensuring that the most significant threats are addressed first.

Tips from the Expert

  • Integrate DevSecOps practices: Emphasize the importance of integrating security into the development and operations processes.
  • Leverage threat intelligence: Highlight the use of threat intelligence platforms to stay updated on emerging threats and vulnerabilities.
  • Focus on data flow mapping: Understanding how data moves through the system can reveal unexpected entry points and data exposure risks.
  • Prioritize API security: In the current landscape where APIs are extensively used, it is important to assess the security of APIs from authentication, access control, and data encryption perspectives.
  • Simulate social engineering attacks: Acknowledge the human factor in cybersecurity by conducting regular simulations of social engineering attacks (like phishing or pretexting) to test and improve employee awareness.
  • Use financial impact assessment: Encourage the use of financial risk assessment models to evaluate potential threats. Assign monetary values to potential losses and combine them with the probability of occurrence to show total financial impact.

How Does the Threat Modeling Process Work? 

1. Form a Team

The first step in the threat modeling process is forming a team. This team should consist of individuals from various disciplines such as security experts, developers, system architects, and business stakeholders. The diversity of the team ensures that all aspects of the system are considered during the threat modeling process.

The team should work together to understand the system, identify potential threats, and develop strategies to mitigate these threats. The team should also be responsible for maintaining the threat model and updating it as necessary.

2. Establish the Scope

This stage involves defining what aspects of the system will be included in the threat model. The scope should include all components of the system that handle sensitive data or could be potential targets for attackers.

Establishing the scope also involves identifying the system’s assets. These could include data, services, and any other resources that could be targeted by attackers. Identifying these assets is crucial as it helps the team understand what they need to protect.

3. Determine Likely Threats

In this stage, the team identifies and catalogs potential threats to the system. This involves brainstorming and researching based on the system’s architecture, technology stack, data flow, and external interactions. Common methods include reviewing past security incidents, analyzing similar systems, and considering industry-standard threat libraries.

Identifying threats involves looking at various aspects such as external attackers, insider threats, system flaws, and environmental factors. For example, an eCommerce platform might face threats like payment fraud, data breaches, or DDoS attacks. A thorough understanding of these threats is crucial as it sets the foundation for the subsequent steps of prioritizing and mitigating these threats.

4. Prioritize Threats

This stage involves identifying potential threats and prioritizing them based on factors such as their potential impact on the system, their likelihood of occurrence, and the resources needed to mitigate them. Prioritizing threats is crucial as it allows organizations to focus their resources on the most significant threats first, thereby maximizing their cybersecurity efforts.

The ranking process can be subjective and based on the particular context of the system or application being analyzed. For instance, a banking application might prioritize threats related to financial fraud, while a health care system might prioritize threats related to patient data privacy.

5. Implement Mitigations

Once threats have been identified and ranked, the next step is to implement mitigations. Mitigations are measures taken to reduce the risk posed by a threat. These could include technical controls such as firewalls or encryption, or procedural controls such as user awareness training or incident response planning.

Mitigation implementation should be proportional to the risk posed by the threat. High-risk threats justify a major effort and investment in mitigation, while for low-risk threats, a small effort might suffice. The key is to strike a balance between the level of risk and the cost of mitigation.

6. Document Results

The final step in the threat modeling process is to document the results. Documentation is vital as it provides a record of the threats identified, the mitigations implemented, and the rationale behind these decisions. This can be crucial for auditing purposes, for demonstrating compliance with regulations, or for informing future threat modeling efforts.

Documentation should be clear and comprehensive, detailing all aspects of the threat modeling process. It should include the threat identification and ranking process, the mitigations implemented, and any assumptions or limitations of the analysis.

Examples of Threat Modeling Frameworks 

There are several frameworks available to guide the threat modeling process. These frameworks provide structured methodologies for identifying, analyzing, and mitigating threats. Let’s take a look at some popular ones.

Attack Trees

Attack trees are a graphical representation of the various ways an attacker can compromise a system. Each node in the tree represents a potential attack vector, and the paths from the root to the leaves represent different attack scenarios.

The benefit of attack trees is that they provide a visual and intuitive way of understanding the various threats to a system. They can also be useful for communicating threat information to non-technical stakeholders.


STRIDE is an acronym for Spoofing, Tampering, Repudiation, Information Disclosure, Denial of Service, and Elevation of Privilege. It is a threat modeling framework developed by Microsoft, and it categorizes threats into these six types.

The STRIDE framework is useful for systematically identifying and categorizing threats. It also provides guidance on appropriate mitigations for each type of threat, making it a practical tool for threat management.


PASTA stands for Process for Attack Simulation and Threat Analysis. It is a seven-step process that involves defining the scope of the analysis, identifying and validating threats, and simulating attacks to validate the effectiveness of mitigations.

PASTA is a comprehensive and in-depth framework that provides a detailed and systematic approach to threat modeling. It is particularly useful for complex systems with a high level of risk.


FIXED is a threat modeling framework that focuses on identifying, prioritizing, and fixing threats. It uses a scoring system to rank threats based on their potential impact and likelihood, and it provides guidance on how to fix them.

FIXED is a straightforward and practical framework that is particularly suitable for smaller organizations or less complex systems.


CVSS, or Common Vulnerability Scoring System, is a standard for assessing the severity of computer system security vulnerabilities. It provides a way to rank vulnerabilities based on their impact and exploitability.

CVSS is a widely used and recognized standard in the cybersecurity industry. It provides a common language for discussing vulnerabilities and can be a useful tool for threat modeling.

Threat Modeling Best Practices 

Start Early

The sooner you start identifying potential threats, the better you can design your system to neutralize them.

Ideally, threat modeling should be introduced in the initial phases of system development, where requirements are being gathered and designs are being conceptualized. This is because, at this stage, the cost and effort of modifying the system design are minimal. Moreover, this approach provides a security-centric perspective right from the onset, reducing the likelihood of overlooking potential threats.

Use Tools to Your Advantage

In a threat modeling process, different tools offer different perspectives and functionalities, which can be beneficial in identifying and assessing threats. Tools can help with:

  • Scanning systems for vulnerabilities
  • Identifying threats based on the system’s architecture and design
  • Identifying threats based on the data flow or user access
  • Prioritizing and ranking threats

Some tools can even automate the threat modeling process, identifying relevant threats based on predefined parameters and rules. While these tools can save time and effort, they should not be relied upon solely. Manual threat modeling, though time-consuming, offers a depth of understanding and analysis that automated tools might not provide.

Understand Risk Tolerance

Understanding your organization’s risk tolerance is crucial in threat modeling. Risk tolerance refers to the level of risk your organization is willing to accept. It’s a balance between the potential impact of a threat and the cost and effort required to mitigate it.

Understanding risk tolerance allows you to prioritize threats. Not all threats can be eliminated—some must be accepted, some mitigated, and some transferred, for example by outsourcing security to another organization. This decision is based on your organization’s risk tolerance.

Educate Employees

The effectiveness of threat modeling is not just dependent on the tools used or the processes followed, but also on the people involved.

Employees across all levels of the organization should be aware of the importance of threat modeling and their role in it. This involves training employees on how to identify potential threats, assess their impact, and devise mitigation strategies.

In addition, employees should be encouraged to adopt a security-first mindset. This means considering security implications in every decision they make, from designing a system feature to coding a software module to testing a system functionality.

The Cloud Native Experts
"The Cloud Native Experts" at Aqua Security specialize in cloud technology and cybersecurity. They focus on advancing cloud-native applications, offering insights into containers, Kubernetes, and cloud infrastructure. Their work revolves around enhancing security in cloud environments and developing solutions to new challenges.