Containerization 101: Basic Concepts, Challenges & Solutions

Containerization is a less heavy option to full-machine virtualization, encapsulating an app in a container with its own environment.

Amit Sheps
September 3, 2023

What is Containerization? 

Containerization is a lightweight alternative to full-machine virtualization that involves encapsulating an application in a container that shares the host operating system. This makes it easy to package and distribute applications, addressing many of the challenges of software dependencies, versioning, and inconsistencies across different environments.

The word ‘container’ uses a shipping container as a metaphor for a containerized software unit. Containers are a standardized unit that can hold various types of goods, simplifying transport, handling, and storage. Software containers function similarly: They wrap an application and all its dependencies into a standardized unit of software, making it easy to move across different environments, from a developer’s workstation to testing environments to production servers.

In essence, containerization allows developers to create predictable environments isolated from other applications. It’s a technology that allows applications to run quickly, reliably, and consistently, regardless of the deployment environment.

This is part of a series of articles about containers.

In this article:

Containerization vs. Virtualization 

Containerization and virtualization are both methods to provide an isolated, consistent environment for running applications. But they work differently and serve different purposes.

Virtualization emulates a complete hardware system, from processor to network card, in a self-contained system. A hypervisor, such as VMware or Hyper-V, is used to manage these virtual machines, each having its own operating system. This means that the same physical server can run multiple different operating systems simultaneously, each in its own virtual machine.

On the other hand, containerization abstracts the application layer. All containers on a host machine share the same operating system kernel, but each container has its own user space. This makes containers smaller, faster, and more efficient than virtual machines.

In summary, while both technologies provide isolated and reproducible environments, containerization does so with less overhead. This makes it a preferred choice for many use cases, particularly those involving microservices and scalable cloud native applications.

Core Components of Containerization 

Container Runtime

The container runtime, also known as container engine, is the software that executes containers and manages container lifecycle. The most popular container runtime is Docker, but there are others like containerd or CRI-O.

The runtime is responsible for everything from pulling and unpacking container images to running containers and handling their output. It also handles network interfaces for containers, and ensures they have access to necessary resources like file systems and devices.

Container Images and Image Registries

A container image is a lightweight, standalone, executable software package that includes everything needed to run a piece of software, including the code, runtime, libraries, environment variables, and config files.

Images are created from a set of instructions called a Dockerfile. The Dockerfile defines what goes on in the environment inside your container, which also includes installing your code and which port it should use for communication.

Orchestration Tool

Orchestration tools like Kubernetes, OpenShift, and Rancher, manage how multiple containers are created, deployed, and interact.

Orchestration involves coordinating the containers that an application needs to run. For instance, suppose an application requires three containers: one for the web server, one for the database, and one for caching. An orchestration tool can ensure they all launch successfully, can communicate, and restart if they crash.


When it comes to containerization, Docker is often the first name that comes to mind. Docker is an open source platform that automates the lifecycle and management of applications within containers. It has become the de facto standard for containerization, thanks to its simplicity, flexibility, and robust ecosystem.

Docker provides a comprehensive suite of tools for building and managing containers. It includes a runtime, a command-line interface, a REST API, and a web-based dashboard. It also includes a registry service (Docker Hub) where users can share and distribute container images.


While Docker is the leading tool for running containers, Kubernetes is the go-to solution for orchestrating them. Developed initially by Google, Kubernetes is now an open source platform that automates the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications.

Kubernetes provides a powerful set of features for managing complex, distributed environments. It supports service discovery, load balancing, automated rollouts and rollbacks, secret and configuration management, storage orchestration, and much more.

One of the key strengths of Kubernetes is its flexibility. It can run on virtually any infrastructure, from bare-metal servers to virtual machines to cloud platforms. It also supports a wide range of container runtimes, including Docker, containerd, and CRI-O.


OpenShift is a containerization platform developed by Red Hat. It is essentially a distribution of Kubernetes that adds a number of enterprise-grade features, including developer tools, integrated CI/CD capabilities, and a comprehensive security framework. OpenShift also integrates with the broader Red Hat ecosystem, including its enterprise Linux distribution and its middleware suite.

One of the key features of OpenShift is its developer-centric approach. It provides a unified console that gives developers a single view of their applications, allowing them to build, deploy, and manage containers with ease.

What Are the Benefits of Containerization? 

Higher Development Velocity

Containerization is a boon for DevOps because it separates the concerns of developers and operations teams. Developers can focus on their applications and dependencies, while operations teams can focus on deployment and management.

Containers ensure that applications work uniformly across different environments. This reduces “it works on my machine” problems, making it easier for developers to write code and operations teams to manage applications. Ultimately, this allows DevOps teams to accelerate the software development lifecycle (SDLC) and iterate on software faster.

Consistent Environment from Development to Production

Containers encapsulate everything an application needs to run. This means that you can have the same environment from development to production, which eliminates the inconsistencies of manual software deployment.

With containers, developers do not need to worry about the infrastructure. They can focus on writing code without worrying about the system it will be running on.

Scalability and Load Balancing

Containers can be easily scaled up or down based on the demand. They can be quickly started and stopped, making them ideal for applications that need to quickly scale in response to demand.

Orchestration tools also provide automated load balancing. This means that they can distribute requests across a group of containers to ensure that no single container becomes a bottleneck.

Efficient Use of System Resources

Containers are lightweight and require less system resources than virtual machines, as they share the host system’s kernel and do not require a full operating system per application. This means more containers can be run on a given hardware combination than if the same applications were run in virtual machines, significantly improving efficiency.

Challenges and Solutions in Implementing Containerization 

Containerization has become a mandatory part of the DevOps toolset for most organizations. However, alongside its compelling benefits, it also raises several real challenges for organizations. These include:

1. Complexity

Containerized environments are inherently dynamic and have a large number of moving parts. This dynamism arises from the multitude of services, interdependencies, configurations, and the transient nature of containers themselves. Every component, from the container runtime to the orchestration platform, has its own configuration and operational intricacies. Plus, the ability to quickly scale in and out in containerized environments can make it more difficult to maintain and manage such environments.

The solution lies in tools that are built for these dynamic ecosystems. Using container orchestration tools like Kubernetes can help in managing the complexity by automating deployment, scaling, and operations of application containers across clusters. Moreover, documentation and a robust CI/CD pipeline can help in streamlining processes and reducing the complexity involved in deploying and managing containers.

2. Security

Another significant concern is security. Containers require new security strategies, because a containerized environment creates a completely new attack surface compared to traditional IT environments. 

Containers share the host system’s kernel, which can potentially lead to security vulnerabilities. If a malicious entity gains access to one container, they could potentially compromise the entire host system. In addition, containers are based on images, which contain software libraries and files, any of which could contain vulnerabilities. A vulnerability in one container image could infect an entire environment. These are only two examples of unique security threats facing containers.

To mitigate these risks, you need to practice diligent security hygiene. This includes regularly updating and patching your containers, limiting the privileges of your containers, and employing container-specific security tools.

Additionally, using a trusted container registry and regularly scanning your containers for vulnerabilities can go a long way in ensuring your containerized applications’ security.

3. Persistent Storage

Persistent storage is another challenge that organizations often encounter when adopting containerization. Containers are ephemeral, meaning they are not designed to store data permanently. When a container is deleted, all the data inside it is lost.

To overcome this hurdle, you can use storage solutions designed specifically for containers, such as Docker volumes or Kubernetes persistent volumes. These allow you to store data outside of the container, ensuring its persistence even if the container is deleted.

Furthermore, using a storage orchestration platform can also help manage persistent storage more effectively. They can automate the provisioning and management of storage resources, making the process more efficient and less error-prone.

4. Networking

Networking is another area where containers can get complicated. Containers need to communicate with each other and the outside world, which requires a robust networking setup.

One solution to this problem is to use container-specific networking solutions. These provide a virtual network that containers can use to communicate with each other. They also allow you to control the network traffic between containers, improving security.

Moreover, using a container orchestration platform like Kubernetes can make networking easier. It provides built-in networking features, allowing containers to communicate seamlessly.

5. Monitoring and Debugging

Finally, monitoring and debugging can be challenging in a containerized environment. Traditional monitoring tools may not work well with containers, and debugging can be difficult due to the ephemeral nature of containers.

To tackle this challenge, you can use monitoring tools designed specifically for containers. These tools can provide detailed insights into the performance and health of your containers, helping you identify and resolve issues quickly.

Furthermore, implementing good logging practices can help with debugging. By ensuring that your containers output useful log information, you can trace back issues and fix them more effectively.

Learn more in our detailed guide to container monitoring

Amit Sheps
Amit is the Director of Technical Product Marketing at Aqua. With an illustrious career spanning renowned companies such as CyberX (acquired by Microsoft) and F5, he has played an instrumental role in fortifying manufacturing floors and telecom networks. Focused on product management and marketing, Amit's expertise lies in the art of transforming applications into cloud-native powerhouses. Amit is an avid runner who relishes the tranquility of early morning runs. You may very well spot him traversing the urban landscape, reveling in the quietude of the city streets before the world awakes.